1 Installation

TraRe can be currently installed from Bioconductor:

 if (!requireNamespace("BiocManager"))

2 Introduction

To fully understand how TraRe works, we will go through each tool it contains:

Along with every step description and explanation, we will be working with a subset of the Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C) clinical trial dataset containing 1.2k genes (\(\approx\) 200 transcription factors or driver genes) and 121 samples from metasatic castration resistant prostate cancer patients. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the treatment: Abiraterone (ABI) and ABI/ENZA (ARSI). For the phenotype dependent Rewiring, we will be focusing on only ARSI patients (35 samples). The pathway we will follow is:


The dataset we are working with is located at TraRe’s package folder. The complete SU2C dataset contains about 13000 genes, but we will be using this subset in order to fulfill the space requirements of the package. We consider important to use a real dataset for a proper understanding of TraRe’s results.

TraRe mainly require three types of gene-related files:

3 LINKER : Generating Gene Regulatory Networks

3.1 Overview of the proposed method

The aim of the proposed method is to find relatively small networks that link few regulatory (or driver) genes with a similarly regulated set of genes, also known as the target genes. In order to build such networks, the method is divided into two phases. During Phase I the method generates K modules of similarly expressed genes and then associates each module to a few regulators.

Due to the non-convex nature of the problem, we perform B runs of this step using a different set of samples (sub-sampling without replacement) with a different random initialization in order to explore more broadly the set of potentially valid modules. Thus, at the end of this step the method has generated K * B modules of similarly regulated genes, each of them with their associated regulators. During Phase II the proposed method generates, for each module, a bipartite graph that links the individual target genes to their associated regulators.

Note that if no combination of regulators represents accurately the expression profile of a given target gene, that gene is removed from the graph. This scenario arises when the target gene in question was an outlier in the corresponding module.

3.2 Running LINKER in TraRe

LINKER generates, from an initial RNA-Seq dataset where drivers (Transcription Factors) and targets genes are provided, GRN modules in three different forms: as raw results, from the Phase I output modules; as modules from the Phase II output modules and in the form of bipartite graphs, where drivers and targets relationships are defined. Here we include all the parameters and their description. For more information, please refer to the help section of LINKER_run().

  • lognorm_est_counts Matrix of log-normalized estimated counts of the gene expression data (Nr Genes x Nr samples).
  • nassay if SummarizedExperiment object is passed as input to lognorm_est_counts, name of the assay containing the desired matrix. Default: 0
  • regulator if SummarizedExperiment object is passed as input to lognorm_est_counts, name of the rowData() variable to build target_filtered_idx and regulator_filtered_idx. This variable must be one for driver genes and zero for target genes. If not specified, target and regulator indexes must be provided.
  • target_filtered_idx Index array of the target genes on the lognorm_est_counts matrix.
  • regulator_filtered_idx Index array of the regulatory genes on the lognorm_est_counts matrix.
  • link_mode Chosen method(s) to link module eigengenes to regulators. The available options are “VBSR”, “LASSOmin”, “LASSO1se” and “LM”. By default, all methods are chosen.
  • graph_mode Chosen method(s) to generate the edges in the bipartite graph. The available options are “VBSR”, “LASSOmin”, “LASSO1se” and “LM”. By default, all methods are chosen.
  • module_rep Method selected for use. Default set to MEAN.
  • NrModules Number of modules that are a priori to be found (note that the final number of modules discovered may differ from this value). By default, 100 modules.
  • corrClustNrIter output from preparedata(). By default, 100.
  • Nr_bootstraps Number of bootstrap of Phase I. By default, 10.
  • FDR The False Discovery Rate correction used for the enrichment analysis. By default, 0.05.
  • NrCores Number of computer cores for the parallel parts of the method. Note that the parallelization is NOT initialized in any of the functions. By default, 2.

We now run LINKER method below. This is the first step from the pathway, running LINKER using the complete gene expression matrix to generate all possible GRN.

# For this example, we are going to join 70 drivers and 1079 targets from our package's folder.

lognorm_est_counts <- utils::read.delim(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),
lognorm_est_counts <- as.matrix(lognorm_est_counts)

# Here we have two options: we can create the index and pass them to run LINKER method or 
# we can work with Summarized experiments.
# In order to create index, in this example regulators are placed in the first 200 positions.

R <- 70
P <- 1079

regulator_filtered_idx <- seq_len(R) 
target_filtered_idx <- R+seq(P) 

# If a SummarizedExperiment is desired to be provided,
# the expression matrix should be saved as an assay and 
# gene info should be located in SummarizedExperiment::rowData(). 
# From this object, target and regulators indexes will be automatically 
# generated.

geneinfo <- utils::read.delim(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),
               '/geneinfo_rewiring_example.txt'),row.names = 1)

# We have to make sure geneinfo and lognorm
# have same rows (same genes).

geneinfo <- geneinfo[rownames(lognorm_est_counts),,drop=FALSE]

# Now we can generate the SE object.
SeObject <- SummarizedExperiment::SummarizedExperiment(assays = list(counts = lognorm_est_counts),
                                                       rowData = geneinfo)

# We recommend VBSR.
# For the sake of time, we will be running only 1 bootstrap, but the following results
# will show a 10 bootstraps LINKER run.

#Regular expression matrix
#linkeroutput <- LINKER_run(lognorm_est_counts = lognorm_est_counts,
#                           target_filtered_idx = target_filtered_idx,
#                           regulator_filtered_idx = regulator_filtered_idx,link_mode="VBSR",
#                           graph_mode="VBSR",NrModules=100,Nr_bootstraps=1)

linkeroutput <- LINKER_run(lognorm_est_counts = SeObject,link_mode="VBSR",
## Bootstrap 1, NrModules 76:
## [1]  4.1842105 14.1973684  0.6229687  0.4942504  0.4118299  0.3965782  0.4400468
## Link modes completed!
## Graphs computed!

LINKER also provides a way of generating a single GRN from specified list of driver and target genes. This eases the task of analyzing relationships between drivers and targets by constraining all the provided genes to a single GRN. Normally, this task is done when we have previously confirm all these genes belong to one GRN. The way we do this is by running the Rewiring method, that will be explained in the next section. Find below the necessary parameters and descriptions of NET_run().

  • lognorm_est_counts Matrix of log-normalized estimated counts of the gene expression data (Nr Genes x Nr samples)
  • target_filtered_idx Index of the target genes on the lognorm_est_counts matrix.
  • regulator_filtered_idx Index of the regulatory genes on the lognorm_est_counts matrix.
  • graph_mode Chosen method(s) to generate the edges in the bipartite graph. The available options are “VBSR”, “LASSOmin”, “LASSO1se” and “LM”. By default, all methods are chosen.
  • FDR The False Discovery Rate correction used for the enrichment analysis. By default, 0.05.
  • NrCores Number of computer cores for the parallel parts of the method. Note that the parallelization is NOT initialized in any of the functions. By default, 3.

In order to run the single GRN generation, there is a particular function that works very similar to the main LINKER one. Here is an example, which is also in the help section of NET_run().

# Assume we have run the rewiring method and we have discovered a rewired module.
# After we have selected the drivers and targets from that modules, we can build
# a single GRN to study it separately.

# Imagine our rewired module consists of 200 driver genes and 1000 target genes.
# We will be using same lognorm_est_counts we have already generated

# Same as before, we can provide indexes or built a SummarizedExperiment and pass it to NET_run()
# We will be using same indexes we have already generated.

# As SeObject has been already generated, we can directly provide it to NET_run()
# Here we rewind that, if not SummarizedExperiment is passed, lognorm_est_counts will
# be the expression matrix, and target_filtered_idx and regulator_filtered_idx wil be
# the ones we have just generated for the example.

# Again, we recommend VBSR

#Regular expression matrix
#graph <- NET_run(lognorm_est_counts = lognorm_est_counts,
#                 target_filtered_idx = target_filtered_idx,
#                 regulator_filtered_idx = regulator_filtered_idx,
#                 graph_mode="VBSR")

graph <- NET_run(lognorm_est_counts = SeObject,graph_mode="VBSR")
## Graphs for (VBSR) computed!

Note that this step is included in the Rewiring method.

4 Rewiring GRN modules

4.1 Overview of Rewiring method

  • Rewiring step performs a permutation test over a certain condition to infer if that condition is producing any deregulation on our generated GRN. Bootstrapping plays an important role, as the non-convex nature of these biological events makes necessary to ensure that a certain behavior is repeated across bootstraps, and to confirm this event does not come from a particular realization. As bootstrapping has been performed in LINKER, this step will take advantage of it and will try to group highly scored modules, to infer GRNs with similar behavior across bootstraps. It will output a folder containing :

  • A correlation matrix in the form of a heatmap (sorted by hierarchical clustering to ease interpretation), containing similar highly scored modules.
  • A dendogram containing the relationships between modules, which have been used to sort the heatmap.
  • A 3-graph plot, containing GRN within all samples and within sample’s phenotype (R-NR).
  • A report containing statistical information about the module’s GRN, driver genes, target genes, pvalues, etc.

4.2 How to run rewiring on TraRe

In order to run Rewiring test, Trare provides two functions: the preparerewiring() function and the runrewiring() function. The first one requires:

  • name: Desired name of the folder which is generated. The chosen threshold will be paste() to the name folder.
  • linker_output_p: Output file from linker function path.
  • lognorm_est_counts_p: Lognorm counts of the gene expression matrix path.
  • SEObject_p: SummarizedExperiment objects path.
  • gene_info_p: path of a two-column file containing genes and ‘regulator’ boolean variable.
  • phenotype_p: path of a two-column file containing used samples and Responder or No Responder ‘Class’ (NR,R).
  • nassays: name of assays in case SummarizedObject is provided.
  • final_signif_thresh: Significance threshold for the rewiring method. The lower the threshold, the more restrictive the method.
  • regulator_info_col_name: Column name of the gene_info_p. By default, ‘regulator’

There are also other parameters that will remain by default. Please take a look at the preparerewiring() function for more information. We now generate the preparerewiring() output.

Note that here we will include the previously generated LINKER’s output. These files can be found in TraRe’s package folder.

# In order to prepare the rewiring, we can provide individual file paths:
lognorm_est_counts_p <- paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

gene_info_p <- paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

linker_output_p <-  paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

phenotype_p <- paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

# Or we can provide a SummarizedExperiment containing expression matrix,
# gene info (as rowData) and phenotype info (colData) plus the linker output.

# We are going to reload geneinfo, this time having old geneinfo rownames 
# as a new column, as preparerewiring will place that column into rownames, 
# so we dont have to use the row.names=1 in the read.delim

geneinfo <- utils::read.delim(gene_info_p)

# We again make sure they have same features (genes)
geneinfo <- geneinfo[geneinfo$uniq_isos%in%rownames(lognorm_est_counts),]

# We also load phenotype
phenotype<- utils::read.delim(phenotype_p)

# select only samples from the phenotype file.
lognorm_est_counts <- lognorm_est_counts[,phenotype$Sample.ID]

PrepareSEObject <- SummarizedExperiment::SummarizedExperiment(assays=list(counts=lognorm_est_counts),
                                                              rowData = geneinfo,
                                                              colData = phenotype)

# This file is stored in the VignettesFiles TraRe's package folder.
PrepareSEObject_p <- paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

# We can now generate the prepare rewiring file:
# With individual paths

#prepared <- preparerewiring(name="Vignette",linker_output_p = linker_output_p,
#                           lognorm_est_counts_p = lognorm_est_counts_p,gene_info_p = gene_info_p,
#                           phenotype_p=phenotype_p,final_signif_thresh=0.01)

# or with a SummarizedExperiment object

prepared <- preparerewiring(name="Vignette",linker_output_p = linker_output_p,
                           SEObject_p = PrepareSEObject_p,final_signif_thresh=0.01)
## Expression Matrix Size: (1149,35)
## Gene Info Table Size: (1149,2)
## NumGenes Kept: 1149
## NumRegs and NumTargs: [70,1079]
## Phenotype Table Size: (35,2)
## Sample Names: [MO_1084.Tumor|PRAD.01115550.Tumor.SM.A4KNI|SC_9050.Tumor|TP_2078_Tumor
## PROS12319B.SU2C.06115116.Tumor.SM.4W2NB|MO_1410.Tumor|SC_9175_T
## PROS01448.6115251.Tumor.SM.67ES6|SC_9057.Tumor|MO_1241.Tumor
## PROS01448.1115161.Tumor.SM.5SGU1|TP_2060.TM|SC_9183_T
## MO_1336.TM|TP_2081_T|PRAD.01115549.Tumor.SM.A4KNH
## MO_1176.Tumor|MO_1179.Tumor|MO_1510_T
## PRAD.01115468.Tumor.SM.6B2KE|SC_9129_Tumor|PM158.TM
## SC_9137_Tumor|PRAD.6115594.0.Tumor.SM.B2XRW|PROS01448.6115234.Tumor.SM.67ERX
## SC_9083.TM|PRAD.6115590.0.Tumor.SM.B2XRS|SC_9080.TM
## PROS01448.6115235.Tumor.SM.67ERY|PRAD.06115124.Tumor.SM.7LGU1|MO_1184.Tumor
## MO_1192.Tumor|PROS01448.6115247.Tumor.SM.67ES2|SC_9043.Tumor|PM14.TM]
## Number of samples: 35
## Filtered exp matrix: (1149,35)
## Class Per Counts: (20,15)

# NOTE: The reason why we are working with paths instead of files is that
# rewiring is allowed to compare more than 1 dataset, so it is easier 
# to provide a vector of paths than a complex structure of files.

# This is, we can provide , for instance, a vector of 2 SummarizedExperiments
# that will be compared. SEObject_p <- c(SEObject1,SEObject2)..
#                        linker_output_p <- c(linker_output_p_1,linker_output_p_2) 

In order to run runrewiring(), we just call runrewiring(prepared). It will create a folder on the specified output path with an html report containing the hierarchical clustering of the rewired modules, these in the form of a heatmap and a report containing statistical information about the performed test.

Rewiring Dendogram As shown in the heatmap, there a is a clear Super Module (SM). For a SM to exist there are some requirements that have to be fulfilled. First, these modules should contain genes whose expression can be separated very well using the ARSI phenotype. Second, they have shown similar behavior across bootstraps, with a score given by its hypergeometrical test. Therefore, there is a SM and its formed by c(298,945,698,619,795,156,63,214,563) modules.

Rewiring Hierarchical Clustering

Rewiring Hierarchical Clustering

In the figure above the Hierarchical Clustering applied shows how the SM we are talking about has been selected. The current implementation of Rewiring method pulls away the first SM it finds and generates all the graph objects and figures we are showing in the next section.

5 Visualization of GRN

5.1 Overview

This tool provides a graphical way of detecting condition-dependent GRN deregulation on the selected rewired modules. Once we have selected a cluster of modules which behave similar across bootstraps, we can constraint them to form a single GRN using NET_Run() and plot these GRN, filtering by samples we want to evaluate according to the phenotype condition.

5.2 Plot GRN in TraRe

We provide two ways of building the layout for the plot, depending on the choice of a t.test to be evaluated over the generated GRN, to sort target genes prior to plot the established relationship between these and drivers. On the one hand, return_layout() generates a regular layout in which there is no t.test, and target genes are sorted randomly in a line. On the other hand, return_layout_phenotype() performs a target gene level t.test which has as null hypothesis if samples separated by the selected condition are not deferentially expressed. From this analysis, the z-score is used to sort target genes and plot them describing a curve when using plot_igraph() function.

# Assume we have run the rewiring method and the `NET_run()` method to generate the
# igraph object. We are going to generate and plot both layouts for the example.
# We are going to generate all the files we need except for the igraph object, which
# is included as an example file in this package.

# We load the igraph object that we generated from the `NET_run()` example.
# Note: the igraph object is inside the list `NET_run()` generates.

graph <- readRDS(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),
graph <- graph$graphs$VBSR

# We first generate the normal layout for the plot.
# We need the drivers and target names. 

lognorm_est_counts <- utils::read.delim(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

drivers <- lognorm_est_counts[seq(70),]
targets <- lognorm_est_counts[70+seq(1079),]

# Note that the generated graph may not have the same drivers and targets we used
# for generating it, so we will extract those genes and check in the gene_info file
# if they are drivers or targets.

geneinfo <- utils::read.delim(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),


drivers_n <- rownames(drivers[R,])
targets_n <- rownames(targets[P,])

# As for this example we are working at gene level (we do not have transcripts inside genes),
# we wont need namehash parameter (see param `namehash`)

normal_layout <- return_layout(drivers_n,targets_n)

# We need to separate our expression matrix by a binary phenotype. 
# This is what the clinical file is used for.

gnames <- c(drivers_n,targets_n)
expmat <-rbind(drivers,targets)

clinic <- utils::read.delim(paste0(system.file("extdata",package="TraRe"),

expmat_R <- expmat[,clinic$Sample.ID[clinic$Class=='R']]
expmat_NR <- expmat[,clinic$Sample.ID[clinic$Class=='NR']]

# We now generate the phenotype layout and the `varfile` we need for this layout.
# (I leave here a way to generate)

varfile <- t(as.matrix(sapply(gnames,
           function(x) c(stats::t.test(expmat_R[x,],expmat_NR[x,])$statistic,
           if(x%in%drivers_n) 1 else 0))))


phenotype_layout <- return_layout_phenotype(drivers_n,targets_n,varfile)

plot_igraph(graph,mytitle="Normal Layout",titlecol="black",mylayout=normal_layout)