MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can target co-expressed genes to coordinate multiple pathways. “Pathway networks of miRNA Regulation” (PanomiR) is a framework to support the discovery of miRNA regulators based on their targeting of coordinated pathways. It analyzes and prioritizes multi-pathway dynamics of miRNA-orchestrated regulation, as opposed to investigating isolated miRNA-pathway interaction events. PanomiR uses predefined pathways, their co-activation, gene expression, and annotated miRNA-mRNA interactions to extract miRNA-pathway targeting events. This vignette describes PanomiR’s functions and analysis tools to derive these multi-pathway targeting events.
If you use PanomiR for your research, please cite PanomiR’s manuscript
(Naderi Yeganeh et al. 2022). Please send any questions/suggestions you may have to
pnaderiy [at] bidmc [dot] harvard [dot] edu or submit Github issues at
Naderi Yeganeh, Pourya, Yue Yang Teo, Dimitra Karagkouni, Yered Pita-Juarez, Sarah L. Morgan, Ioannis S. Vlachos, and Winston Hide. “PanomiR: A systems biology framework for analysis of multi-pathway targeting by miRNAs.” bioRxiv (2022). doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.12.499819.
PanomiR can be accessed via Bioconductor. To install, start R (version >= 4.2.0) and run the following code.
if (!requireNamespace("BiocManager", quietly = TRUE)) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install("PanomiR")
You can also install the latest development version of PanomiR using GitHub.
PanomiR is a framework to prioritize disease-associated miRNAs using activity of disease-associated pathways. The input datasets for PanomiR are (a) a gene expression dataset along with covariates such as disease-state and batch, (b) a background collection of pathways/genesets, and (c) a collection of miRNAs and their gene targets.
The workflow of PanomiR includes (a) generation of pathway summary statistics from gene expression data, (b) detection of differentially activated pathways, (c) finding coherent groups, or clusters, of differentially activated pathways, and (d) detecting miRNAs that target each group of pathways.
Individual steps of the workflow can be used in isolation to carry out specific analyses. The following sections outline each step and the material needed to execute PanomiR.
PanomiR generates pathway activity summary profiles from gene expression data and a list of pathways. Pathway summaries are numbers that represent the overall activity of genes that belong to each pathway. These numbers are calculated based on a methodology previously described in part by Altschuler et al. (Altschuler et al. 2013; Joachim et al. 2018). Briefly, genes in each sample are ranked by their expression values and then pathway summaries are calculated as the average rank-squared of genes within a pathway. The summaries are then center and scaled (zNormalized) across samples.
The default list of background pathways in PanomiR is formatted into a table
data("path_gene_table")). The table is based on canonical pathways collection
of Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) V6.2 and it contains annotated
pathways from a variety of sources (Liberzon et al. 2011).
** Users interested in using other pathway/geneset backgrounds, such as newer versions of MSigDB or KEGG, should refer to the appendix of this manual.
This section uses a reduced example dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)
Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC) dataset to generate
pathway summary statistics (Ally et al. 2017). Note: Make sure that
you select a gene representation type that matches the rownames of your
expression data. The type can be modified using the
id argument in the
function below. The default value for this argument is
library(PanomiR) # Pathway reference from the PanomiR package data("path_gene_table") data("miniTestsPanomiR") # Generating pathway summary statistics summaries <- pathwaySummary(miniTestsPanomiR$mini_LIHC_Exp, path_gene_table, method = "x2", zNormalize = TRUE, id = "ENSEMBL") head(summaries)[,1:2] #> TCGA-BC-A10S-01A-22R-A131-07 #> BIOCARTA_41BB_PATHWAY -0.1506216 #> BIOCARTA_ACE2_PATHWAY -0.5676447 #> BIOCARTA_ACH_PATHWAY -0.3211747 #> BIOCARTA_ACTINY_PATHWAY 1.4363526 #> BIOCARTA_AGPCR_PATHWAY -0.1948523 #> BIOCARTA_AGR_PATHWAY 0.6802993 #> TCGA-BC-4073-01B-02R-A131-07 #> BIOCARTA_41BB_PATHWAY -0.1269436 #> BIOCARTA_ACE2_PATHWAY -0.8327436 #> BIOCARTA_ACH_PATHWAY -0.4390042 #> BIOCARTA_ACTINY_PATHWAY 1.4975456 #> BIOCARTA_AGPCR_PATHWAY -0.2499193 #> BIOCARTA_AGR_PATHWAY 0.5420588
Once you generate the pathway activity profiles, as discussed in the last section, there are several possible analyses that you can perform. We have bundled some of the most important ones into standalone functions. Here, we describe differential pathway activity profiling to determine dysregulatd pathways. This function analyzes differences in pathway activity profiles in user-determined conditions.
At this stage you need to provide a pathway-gene association table, an expression dataset, and a covariates table. You need to specify covariates that you would like to contrast. You also need to provide a contrast, as formatted in limma (Ritchie et al. 2015). If the contrast is not provided, the function assumes the first two levels of the provided covariate are to be contrasted. Note: make sure the contrast covariate is formatted as factor.
output0 <- differentialPathwayAnalysis( geneCounts = miniTestsPanomiR$mini_LIHC_Exp, pathways = path_gene_table, covariates = miniTestsPanomiR$mini_LIHC_Cov, condition = 'shortLetterCode') de.paths <- output0$DEP head(de.paths,3) #> logFC AveExpr t #> REACTOME_GROWTH_HORMONE_RECEPTOR_SIGNALING -0.9159376 0.3044281 -10.404966 #> BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY -0.5744103 0.3123897 -6.770069 #> PID_IL5_PATHWAY -0.6219876 0.4240432 -6.255756 #> P.Value adj.P.Val B #> REACTOME_GROWTH_HORMONE_RECEPTOR_SIGNALING 1.942463e-06 0.002012391 5.240095 #> BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY 6.903010e-05 0.035757593 2.126311 #> PID_IL5_PATHWAY 1.276971e-04 0.040289104 1.550780 #> contrast #> REACTOME_GROWTH_HORMONE_RECEPTOR_SIGNALING shortLetterCodeTP-shortLetterCodeNT #> BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY shortLetterCodeTP-shortLetterCodeNT #> PID_IL5_PATHWAY shortLetterCodeTP-shortLetterCodeNT
PanomiR provides a function to find groups coordinated differentially activated pathways based on a pathway co-expression network (PCxN) previously described in (Pita-Juárez et al. 2018). Briefly, PCxN is a network where nodes are pathways and links are co-expression between the nodes. It is formatted into a table were rows represent edges. The edges of PCxN are marked by two numbers, 1- a correlation co-efficient and 2- a significance adjusted p-value. Cut-offs for both of these numbers can be manually set using PanomiR functions. See function manuals for more info.
Here we have provided a small version of PCxN for tutorial purposes. A more recent version of PCxN based on MSigDB V6.2 is available through the data repository accompanying PanomiR manuscript, which can be found here.
# using an updated version of pcxn set.seed(2) pathwayClustsLIHC <- mappingPathwaysClusters( pcxn = miniTestsPanomiR$miniPCXN, dePathways = de.paths[1:300,], topPathways = 200, outDir=".", plot = FALSE, subplot = FALSE, prefix='', clusteringFunction = "cluster_louvain", correlationCutOff = 0.1) head(pathwayClustsLIHC$Clustering) #> Pathway cluster #> 1 BIOCARTA_NO1_PATHWAY 1 #> 2 BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY 1 #> 3 BIOCARTA_ALK_PATHWAY 1 #> 4 BIOCARTA_RANKL_PATHWAY 1 #> 5 BIOCARTA_MCM_PATHWAY 3 #> 6 BIOCARTA_CELLCYCLE_PATHWAY 3
PanomiR identifies miRNAs that target clusters of pathways, as defined in the last section. In order to this, you would need a reference table of miRNA-Pathway association score (enrichment). We recommend using a customized miRNA-Pathway association table, tailored to your experimental data. This section provides an overview of prioritization process. Readers who interested in knowing more about the technical details of PanomiR can access PanomiR’s accompanying publication (Naderi Yeganeh et al. 2022).
Here, we provide a pre-processed small example table of miRNA-pathway enrichment
miniTestsPanomiR$miniEnrich object. This table contains enrichment analysis
results using Fisher’s Exact Test between MSigDB pathways and TargetScan miRNA
targets. The individual components are accessible via
data(targetScan_03) (Agarwal et al. 2015; Liberzon et al. 2011). This
example table contains only a subset of the full pairwise enrichment.
You can refer to section 5 of this manual to learn how to create
enrichment tables and how to customize them to your specific gene expression
PanomiR generates individual scores for individual miRNAs, which quantify targeting a group of pathways. These scores are generated based on the reference enrichment table described in the previous section. We are interested in knowing to what extent each miRNA targets clusters of pathways identified in the last step (see previous section).
PanomiR constructs a null distribution of the targeting score for each miRNA. It then contrasts observed scores from a given group of pathways (clusters) against the null distribution in order to generate a targeting p-value. These p-values are used to rank miRNAs per cluster.
The process described above requires repeated sampling to empirically obtain the
null distribution. The argument
sampRate denotes the number of repeats in the
process. Note that in the example below, we use a sampling rate of 50, the
recommended rate is between 500-1000. Also, we set the
FALSE. This argument, when set
TRUE, ensures that the null distribution
is obtained only once. This argument should be set to TRUE if you wish to save
your sampling and check for different outputs from the clustering algorithms or
set.seed(1) output2 <- prioritizeMicroRNA(enriches0 = miniTestsPanomiR$miniEnrich, pathClust = miniTestsPanomiR$miniPathClusts$Clustering, topClust = 1, sampRate = 50, method = c("aggInv"), outDir = "Output/", dataDir = "outData/", saveSampling = FALSE, runJackKnife = FALSE, numCores = 1, prefix = "outmiR", saveCSV = FALSE) #> Working on Cluster1. #> Performing aggInv function. #> aggInv Method Done head(output2$Cluster1) #> x cluster_hits aggInv_cover aggInv_pval #> 1 hsa-miR-101-3p.2 6 -1.9566603 0.0001216703 #> 2 hsa-miR-101-3p.1 4 -0.3395771 0.0006214715 #> 3 hsa-miR-124-3p.2/hsa-miR-506-3p 7 -0.2357761 0.0008599272 #> 4 hsa-miR-1247-5p 4 -1.6599230 0.0021625662 #> 5 hsa-miR-1249-3p 1 -2.4578993 0.0042061415 #> 6 hsa-miR-1252-5p 4 -0.7572036 0.0050836835 #> aggInv_fdr #> 1 0.002433406 #> 2 0.005732848 #> 3 0.005732848 #> 4 0.010812831 #> 5 0.016824566 #> 6 0.016945612
We recommend using PanomiR with on tissue/experiment-customized datasets. In order to do this, you need to create a customized enrichment table. You can simply do so by using the pathway and miRNA list that we have provided as a part of the package. Simply, plug in the name of the genes that are present (expressed) in your experiment in the following code:
# using an updated version of pcxn data("msigdb_c2") data("targetScan_03") customeTableEnrich <- miRNAPathwayEnrichment(mirSets = targetScan_03, pathwaySets = msigdb_c2, geneSelection = yourGenes, mirSelection = yourMicroRNAs, fromID = "ENSEMBL", toID = "ENTREZID", minPathSize = 9, numCores = 1, outDir = ".", saveOutName = NULL)
In the above section, the field
fromID denotes the gene representation
format of your input list. Here is a quick example that runs fast. Note that
miRNAPathwayEnrichment() function creates a detailed report with
parameters that are used internally. To get a smaller table that is suitable
for publication purposes, use
# using an updated version of pcxn data("msigdb_c2") data("targetScan_03") tempEnrich <-miRNAPathwayEnrichment(targetScan_03[1:30],msigdb_c2[1:30]) head(reportEnrichment(tempEnrich)) #> miRNA Pathway pval pAdjust #> 14 hsa-miR-1252-5p BIOCARTA_CSK_PATHWAY 0.00179 0.259 #> 55 hsa-miR-1271-5p/hsa-miR-96-5p BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY 0.01100 1.000 #> 122 hsa-miR-124-3p.1 BIOCARTA_RANKL_PATHWAY 0.01550 1.000 #> 53 hsa-miR-124-3p.2/hsa-miR-506-3p BIOCARTA_AKT_PATHWAY 0.03740 1.000 #> 99 hsa-miR-1252-5p BIOCARTA_AGPCR_PATHWAY 0.03940 1.000 #> 112 hsa-miR-124-3p.1 BIOCARTA_BCR_PATHWAY 0.05360 1.000
PanomiR can integrate genesets and pathways from external sources including
those annotated in MSigDB. In order to do so, you need to provide a
GeneSetCollection object as defined in the
The example below illustrates using external sources to create your
own customized pathway-gene association table. This customized table can
path_gene_table input in sections 1, 2, and 5
of this manual.
data("gscExample") newPathGeneTable <-tableFromGSC(gscExample) #> Warning: replacing previous import 'utils::findMatches' by #> 'S4Vectors::findMatches' when loading 'AnnotationDbi' #> #> #> 'select()' returned 1:1 mapping between keys and columns #> 'select()' returned 1:1 mapping between keys and columns
The the pathway correlation network in section 3 is build upon an MSigDB V6.2, canonical pathways (cp) collection dataset that includes KEGG Pathways. KEGG prohibits distribution of its pathways by third parties. You can access desired versions of MSigDB in gmt format via this link (Subramanian et al. 2005).
msigdb provides an programmatic interface to download different
geneset collections. Including how to add KEGG pathways or download mouse
genesets. Use the this MSigDB tutorial
to create your desired gene sets.
You can also use the following code chunk to create pathway-gene association tables from gmt files.
library(GSEABase) yourGeneSetCollection <- getGmt("YOUR GMT FILE") newPathGeneTable <- tableFromGSC(yourGeneSetCollection)
sessionInfo() #> R version 4.3.0 RC (2023-04-18 r84287) #> Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit) #> Running under: Ubuntu 22.04.2 LTS #> #> Matrix products: default #> BLAS: /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.18-bioc/R/lib/libRblas.so #> LAPACK: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/lapack/liblapack.so.3.10.0 #> #> locale: #>  LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8 LC_NUMERIC=C #>  LC_TIME=en_GB LC_COLLATE=C #>  LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8 LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8 #>  LC_PAPER=en_US.UTF-8 LC_NAME=C #>  LC_ADDRESS=C LC_TELEPHONE=C #>  LC_MEASUREMENT=en_US.UTF-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C #> #> time zone: America/New_York #> tzcode source: system (glibc) #> #> attached base packages: #>  stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base #> #> other attached packages: #>  PanomiR_1.5.0 BiocStyle_2.29.0 #> #> loaded via a namespace (and not attached): #>  DBI_1.1.3 bitops_1.0-7 gson_0.1.0 #>  shadowtext_0.1.2 gridExtra_2.3 GSEABase_1.63.0 #>  rlang_1.1.0 magrittr_2.0.3 DOSE_3.27.0 #>  compiler_4.3.0 RSQLite_2.3.1 png_0.1-8 #>  vctrs_0.6.2 reshape2_1.4.4 stringr_1.5.0 #>  pkgconfig_2.0.3 crayon_1.5.2 fastmap_1.1.1 #>  XVector_0.41.0 ggraph_2.1.0 utf8_1.2.3 #>  HDO.db_0.99.1 rmarkdown_2.21 enrichplot_1.21.0 #>  graph_1.79.0 purrr_1.0.1 bit_4.0.5 #>  xfun_0.39 zlibbioc_1.47.0 cachem_1.0.7 #>  aplot_0.1.10 GenomeInfoDb_1.37.0 jsonlite_1.8.4 #>  blob_1.2.4 BiocParallel_1.35.0 tweenr_2.0.2 #>  parallel_4.3.0 R6_2.5.1 RColorBrewer_1.1-3 #>  bslib_0.4.2 stringi_1.7.12 limma_3.57.0 #>  jquerylib_0.1.4 GOSemSim_2.27.0 Rcpp_1.0.10 #>  bookdown_0.33 knitr_1.42 downloader_0.4 #>  IRanges_2.35.0 Matrix_1.5-4 splines_4.3.0 #>  igraph_1.4.2 tidyselect_1.2.0 viridis_0.6.2 #>  qvalue_2.33.0 yaml_2.3.7 codetools_0.2-19 #>  lattice_0.21-8 tibble_3.2.1 plyr_1.8.8 #>  treeio_1.25.0 Biobase_2.61.0 withr_2.5.0 #>  KEGGREST_1.41.0 evaluate_0.20 gridGraphics_0.5-1 #>  scatterpie_0.1.9 polyclip_1.10-4 Biostrings_2.69.0 #>  ggtree_3.9.0 pillar_1.9.0 BiocManager_1.30.20 #>  stats4_4.3.0 clusterProfiler_4.9.0 ggfun_0.0.9 #>  generics_0.1.3 RCurl_1.98-1.12 S4Vectors_0.39.0 #>  ggplot2_3.4.2 tidytree_0.4.2 munsell_0.5.0 #>  scales_1.2.1 xtable_1.8-4 glue_1.6.2 #>  lazyeval_0.2.2 tools_4.3.0 data.table_1.14.8 #>  fgsea_1.27.0 annotate_1.79.0 forcats_1.0.0 #>  graphlayouts_0.8.4 XML_3.99-0.14 fastmatch_1.1-3 #>  tidygraph_1.2.3 cowplot_1.1.1 grid_4.3.0 #>  ape_5.7-1 tidyr_1.3.0 AnnotationDbi_1.63.0 #>  colorspace_2.1-0 nlme_3.1-162 patchwork_1.1.2 #>  GenomeInfoDbData_1.2.10 ggforce_0.4.1 cli_3.6.1 #>  fansi_1.0.4 viridisLite_0.4.1 dplyr_1.1.2 #>  gtable_0.3.3 yulab.utils_0.0.6 sass_0.4.5 #>  digest_0.6.31 BiocGenerics_0.47.0 ggplotify_0.1.0 #>  ggrepel_0.9.3 org.Hs.eg.db_3.17.0 farver_2.1.1 #>  memoise_2.0.1 htmltools_0.5.5 lifecycle_1.0.3 #>  httr_1.4.5 GO.db_3.17.0 bit64_4.0.5 #>  MASS_7.3-59
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